Dorothy Brown Memorial Lecture and Study Day 2018

Dorothy Brown Memorial Lecture and Study Day 2018

Dorothy Brown, who died in 2012, took a leading part in the establishment of the National Centre of Peace and Conflict Studies at Otago University which researches alternatives to war in the settlement of international differences and includes students from all over the world, especially areas in conflict. The Director and one of the lecturers are participating in the Study Day.

New Zealand’s grassroots peace movement of the 1980s pulled off a great achievement founded in persistent grassroots activism. However, New Zealand has steadily increased its military relationship with the US and taken a support role in dubious US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. 

These ties compromise New Zealand’s ability to fulfil an international peacekeeper role.  Independent peace-brokering is crucially needed in 2018 as  ‘tinderbox’ conflicts threaten the possibility of devastating conflict, potentially involving nuclear weapons These conflicts cannot be resolved militarily, and the concept of  ‘just war’ is misleading and unhelpful.  New Zealand should break free of its traditional alliance ties and begin to develop an independent ethical foreign policy.

DOROTHY BROWN MEMORIAL LECTURE

Friday evening, 9 November, 7:30 pm – free event

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Moriori – Six Hundred Years of Peacekeeping on Rekohu (Chatham Islands/New Zealand)

– Myths, Misconceptions and the Struggle for Truth

The practice of peace, especially in times of provocation and conflict, requires a strong commitment to principle. The Moriori People (the original settlers of Rekohu or Chatham Islands), demonstrated such a commitment in taking a conscious stand for peace in response to the invasion of their island home by two Maori tribes from Wellington in 1835.

Centuries earlier, Moriori had abandoned warfare and killing on their Island home and had successfully lived in peace for 500 years. They were not prepared to violate that ancient covenant with their gods even if it meant death and destruction for themselves and their culture.

Not all would, today, agree with such a stance, but in taking it, Moriori steadfastly believe that they have held onto their mana as a people and the mana over their land. They had, collectively as a people, upheld the covenant they made with their gods to never again take a human life by violent means. The commitment to Peace is therefore at the center of Moriori culture and their modern-day renaissance.  

Over the last two hundred years, the Moriori people and their culture have struggled against genocide, oppression, suppression of identity, myth-making and political manipulation. Over the past 30 years the descendants of this much maligned and misunderstood people have begun the long and arduous journey to recover and reclaim their culture and identity and rightful place in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

This presentation will tell the story of the Moriori Peoples and their contribution to peacemaking in this country and of survival/revival against almost impossible odds. Most of all it will it tell the story of the power of peace as a guiding beacon of light and hope that has inspired the current generation of Moriori People.

 

Maui Solomon

Chairman Hokotehi Moriori Trust, Rekohu (Chatham Islands)

Moriori, Kai Tahu and Pakeha

Maui is an Indigenous Rights Lawyer with over 30 years’ experience at both the local and international level, specialising as an advocate for the recognition of the rights and responsibilities of indigenous peoples including his own Moriori tribe from Rekohu. He has appeared in every court and tribunal in the country and was the first Moriori or Maori lawyer to appear before the Privy Council in London in 1996.

He is a former Commissioner of the Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission. He is also a well-known expert on cultural and intellectual property rights and for 20 years was lead counsel for the Wai 262 claim concerning indigenous flora and fauna and cultural knowledge; the first whole of government claim to be heard by the Waitangi Tribunal.

Maui has been a keynote speaker at conferences all over the world including at the United Nations, Geneva and last year at the Bioneers Conference in San Francisco and is a published author. Maui is also a past-President of the International Society of Ethnobiology and former Adjunct Professor at the Simon Fraser University in British Colombia.

For the past 35 years, he has had a leading role in the renaissance of the culture and identity of the Moriori peoples of Rekohu/Chatham Islands – a people once described as “extinct”.  He is the Executive Chair of his tribal organisation, Hokotehi Moriori Trust, and is currently Chief Negotiator for Moriori in the settlement of their historical Treaty claims that date from 1862.

Maui was also a key player in the establishment at the University of Otago of the National Centre for Peace and Conflicts Studies in 2009 and has been a trustee of ANZPACS Trust for the past 12 years.

STUDY DAY

Saturday 10 November, 9:30 am – 4:30 pm

$20 per person includes lunch and light refreshments

Registrations essential for catering BEFORE 5 November. Please pay (cash or cheque) on the day.

Seeking a Statutory National Day of Commemoration for the NZ Wars

Leah Bell and Zak Henry, former Otorohanga College students

Parihaka Indigenous Peace Centre

Synopsis

Many strands of history are woven into the very fabric of this land at Parihaka. It provided the beginnings of what was to be known as the passive resistance movement in Aotearoa and it predated Gandhi.

I intend to look at activities organised by our two courageous, significant resilient leaders Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi with a contextual insight into how they stymied what could have been a bloody war.

The tamariki could not be overlooked and must be recognised as a strategy that served the community as a commendable retardant.

Thought-provoking connections of our history reflecting travesty, fear, shame, colonisation and its effects, peace and the poi, the raukura and its significance today are all interwoven.  Our heritage.

The reconciliation at Parihaka was a significant day and must be mentioned in the history of Aotearoa, Taranaki, Taranaki Iwi and Parihaka.  A brief outlay of its process.

Born at Whakamarama, Tauranga surrounded by native bush, in essence living with nature where life was about the environment and what it gave. Formal education at the country school had its difficulties and absenteeism was as a result of working the small block of land with the rest of the family. Educated at Tauranga Girls College, then moved to Dunedin School of Nursing where she completed the three-year training.

After working within areas of interest a flare for Public Health Nursing resonated affirming a connection with Maori, Community, Iwi, Hapu and whanau albeit a little too late. The desire to make the world a better place in which to live then leading to healing Papatuanuku came as a hard task.

After exercising extreme patience and some caution from the elders Maata regained her kaitiakitnaga role at Parihaka. 31 years of living on Parihaka listening to the stories, handed down from generation to generation, has provided insight into the historical grievances of the ancestors whose role at the time was about Kaitiakitanga.

Maata has five children who have lived on Parihaka. Along with her husband Te Ru Koriri Wharehoka, died 2007, they comfortably reinvented systems that existed in Maoridom prior to colonization.  It is the legacy of Tohu and Te Whiti to which Maata is beholden and has dedicated her time and energy to telling the story of Parihaka.

Maata Wharehoka

Senior Maori Scholar, National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, 2015

Conflict and memory:
thinking through the legacies of empire and colonialism

Synopsis:

This talk explores the challenges that histories of empire and colonisation – which encompass the political disempowerment, economic marginalisation, and cultural delegitimisation of indigenous communities – pose to the construction of national history.

Ernest Renan, the foremost nineteenth-century theorist of nationhood, suggested that a vital precondition for nationhood was the ‘possession in common of a rich legacy of memories’. Colonial dispossession and violence have meant that having memory ‘in common’ has been difficult in our islands.

Renan suggests that nations are also built on an agreement on what aspects of their pasts they would like to forget: in the New Zealand case, there has been a great deal of forgetfulness, but some communities have resisted this. The tensions of national memory are the centre of this talk and it explores how some notable shifts around memory and remembrance have been important elements in the partial renegotiation of nationhood that New Zealand is in the midst of.

Tony Ballantyne is the Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Humanities at the University of Otago. He is a Professor of History and he is a leading global expert on the history of the modern British empire. At the University of Otago he also serves as Co-Director of the Centre for Research on Colonial Culture and he leads a number of campus-wide initiatives that focus on both research and student experience.

He has a deep commitment to global education, reflecting not only the centrality of cross-cultural relationships in his research and teaching, but also his own teaching experience, having completed his PhD at the University of Cambridge and having held positions at the National University of Ireland, Galway, the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and Washington University, St Louis. He is also currently an Honorary Professor, Fuzhou University, China.

Professor Tony Ballantyne

Pro Vice-Chancellor, University of Otago

The Role of the Churches before, during and after the New Zealand Wars

Synopsis

Te Haahi Mihinare (the Maori version of the Anglican Church) was deeply embedded in the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s and 1870s. Founded by iwi, Mihinare reflected, shaped and amplified their iwi views. These views were in turn shaped by Scripture, by Anglican ecclesiology and by their own matauranga-a-iwi (tribal worldviews).

In Ngati Porou war came in 1865 within the iwi over its political and theological direction and then would take a terrible toll on other iwi as conflict spread. And like war, peace was also a product of matauranga – of worldviews and was a long-term process.

Dr Hirini Kaa is of Ngāti Porou, Ngāti Kahungunu and Rongowhakaata descent. Currently working as Kaiārahi in the Faculty of Arts at the University of Auckland, Hirini has worked in a range of areas including in the social services sector, for the Anglican Church and for his iwi.

Hirini has extensive television experience including presenting, researching and co-writing the seven-part historical documentary series ‘The Prophets’ for Māori Television. His PhD thesis was ‘He Ngākau Hou: Te Hāhi Mihinare and the Renegotiation of Mātauranga, c.1800-1992’ which he is currently working on publishing with Bridget Williams Books.

Revd Dr Hirini Kaa

Auckland University historian and theologian

Lemon Blossom

Synopsis

Emerging from the base of the sacred mountain of Maungapohatu in the community of Rua Kenana are many stories that still remain untold. In this moment in time, I will pause briefly and retell one of those stories and how three generations of the one family resolved and continue to resolve the violence of 2 April 1916.

Ko Putauaki te maunga
To Takanga i o Apa te wai
Ko Tuwharetoa ki Kawerau, Ngati Awa, Tuhoe ōku iwi
Ko Rev Wayne Te Kaawa

Rev. Wayne Te Kaawa is in his first year of a PhD, having graduated in 2001 from Otago with a Bachelor of Theology and again in 2015 with a Masters in Ministry.

Like many from his iwi, he left Kawerau College without any qualifications in 1980 and faced long periods of unemployment. Almost 40 years later,  he is in his second year of a PhD. Not academically brilliant, he just keeps trying. His goal is to be the first person from his iwi to gain a PhD and inspire future generations to become high achievers in education.

He has been in ministry in the Presbyterian since 2002 having served in Putauaki Parish (Te Teko, Onepu, Kawerau, Matata, Waiohau), Rotorua and Opotiki and was Moderator of the Presbyterian Māori Synod. His doctoral research is: Re-visioning Christology through a Māori indigenous lens. Jesus poses the question to his disciples, who do you say that I am? What has our response been?

Revd Wayne Te Kaawa

Rua Kenana as Tuhoe Peace Advocate, former Moderator Maori Synod Presbyterian Church, Maori Chaplain at University of Otago

Dorothy Brown Memorial Lecture and Study Day

Dorothy Brown Memorial Lecture and Study Day

Dorothy Brown, who died in 2012, took a leading part in the establishment of the National Centre of Peace and Conflict Studies at Otago University which researches alternatives to war in the settlement of international differences and includes students from all over the world, especially areas in conflict. Three of the lecturers are giving papers at the Study Day.

New Zealand’s grassroots peace movement of the 1980s pulled off a great achievement founded in persistent grassroots activism. However, New Zealand has steadily increased its military relationship with the US and taken a support role in dubious US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. 

These ties compromise New Zealand’s ability to fulfil an international peacekeeper role.  Independent peace-brokering is crucially needed in 2017 as  ‘tinderbox’ conflicts threaten the possibility of devastating conflict, potentially involving nuclear weapons These conflicts cannot be resolved militarily, and the concept of  ‘just war’ is misleading and unhelpful.  New Zealand should break free of its traditional alliance ties and begin to develop an independent ethical foreign policy.

DOROTHY BROWN MEMORIAL LECTURE

Friday evening,13 October – free event

Maire Leadbeater – longtime New Zealand Peace Activist

Nuclear free New Zealand at 30: historic achievement compromised by ‘follow the leader’ foreign and defence policy

New Zealand’s grassroots peace movement of the 1980s pulled off a great achievement founded in persistent grassroots activism and a range of daring and creative strategies. This energy was carried over into a 1988 high profile and partially successful campaign against New Zealand’s purchase of high-tech frigates. However, campaign momentum began to diminish in the years following the passage of the nuclear free law.

Despite its ‘expulsion’ from ANZUS, New Zealand held on to its commitments to the UKUSA agreement, and other multilateral and bilateral defence and security agreements with western aligned countries. New Zealand has steadily increased its military relationship with the US, and taken a support role in dubious US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Crucial decisions have been taken in secret with no democratic accountability – for example the decision to fully restore intelligence ties with the US in 2009.

These ties compromise New Zealand’s ability to fulfil an international peacekeeper role, although there have been a few hopeful exceptions, including New Zealand’s role in offering mediation support to the warring factions in the Bougainville conflict in the late 1990s.

Independent peace-brokering is crucially needed in 2017 as ‘tinderbox’ conflicts threaten the possibility of devastating conflict, potentially involving nuclear weapons: US and North Korea, India and Pakistan, China and India. In our own region the West Papuan people under Indonesian rule continue to suffer grave abuse. These conflicts cannot be resolved militarily, and the concept of ‘just war’ is misleading and unhelpful. New Zealand should break free of its traditional alliance ties and begin to develop an independent ethical foreign policy.

Maire first became involved with the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in the early 1960s. Later, as spokesperson for Auckland CND she played a leading role in the mass movement of the 1980s that successfully advocated for a Nuclear Free New Zealand. A retired social worker, Maire has been involved in human rights and solidarity NGOs and is currently active in ‘West Papua Action Auckland’. She holds an Amnesty International New Zealand life-time award for her work in human rights and was recently awarded the Order of Timor-Leste in recognition of her solidarity work in the 1990s. She is the author of: (2013) Peace, power & politics : how New Zealand became nuclear free. Dunedin; Otago University Press 2013 and (2006) ‘Negligent Neighbour: New Zealand’s complicity in the invasion and occupation of Timor Leste’ Craig Potton.

STUDY DAY

Saturday 14 October – $25 per person includes lunch and light refreshments
Registrations essential for catering. Please pay on the day.

The Pacifist State

This talk explores why states need to abandon warism for pacifism, unilaterally disarm themselves and commit to radically nonviolent politics in order to break the current cycle of violence we see in the world today. It goes on to explain how states could practically adopt a pacifist stance and replace violent national defence with nonviolent civilian-based defence, and how the development of unarmed peacekeepers could provide states with the ability to protect vulnerable civilians and engage in peacebuilding operations both at home and overseas. Examples from the literature will be used to illustrate how such suggestions are realistic and practical. The talk will conclude by explaining how moving from warism to pacifism is necessary for building both a more peaceful society which meets the needs of its people, and a more peaceful world where organised violent conflict between states and peoples is a thing of the past.

Richard Jackson is Professor of Peace Studies and Director of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago. He is the author of 10 books and more than 100 papers on issues of pacifism, conflict resolution, terrorism, war, politics and political violence. One of his recent books is a novel which explores the question of why a terrorist would attack Western society. It is entitled, Confessions of a Terrorist (Zed Books, 2014).

The Legacy of the Just War in the New Zealand State

In this paper I will look at the pressure on the state to provide moral justification for military interventions, the steps that various governments took to provide this, and the ways in which this factor played out in the context of New Zealand’s parliamentary democracy. The legacy is interesting, for Just War theory continued to influence the public words of government, alongside raison d’etat, and this paper seeks to understand the reasons for this, some of them institutional, some of them connected with international obligations, and some of them related to the operation of democracy. But these factors could equally play out against Just War ideas and this is also explored.

Peter Lineham is Professor of History at Massey University and Regional Director of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences on Massey’s Albany campus. He is a respected scholar whose interests cover a range of subject areas that can loosely be categorised under history and religion.  He teaches history at Massey’s Albany campus, having previously taught at Massey’s Palmerston North campus, and he has served as Head of the School of Social and Cultural Studies, Chair of the College Board and is currently Chair of the University’s Library Committee.  He has written articles on many aspects of English and New Zealand religious history and his books include There we found BrethrenNo Ordinary Union and Bible and Society and he co-edited the standard text on New Zealand’s religious history, Transplanted Christianity. In 2013 his book on Brian Tamaki and the Destiny Church, Destiny was published by Penguin Books. In 2017 he published a book on the way religion in New Zealand has influenced society and culture, with the title Sunday Best. His interpretations of trends in religion in New Zealand are also frequently reported by the media. He has long been active in a range of churches, Christian organisations and in Tertiary Chaplaincy co-ordination and prisoner support. His MA is from the University of Canterbury, his B.D. from the University of Otago and his D.Phil. from the University of Sussex.

War (Violence) Education

Education is not neutral. Education is about learning and war education is about learning about war but the content of war education acts to make war and therefore violence permissible. This session will introduce the idea that educations that communicate about war without problematising this form of violence not only legitimise war but legitimise violence. We will explore justification for war, the depersonalisation of education and war education and suggest that war education is a form of propaganda that national ministries use to moralise acts that are immoral for individuals to commit. This session is interactive and will invite participation from the audience.

Katerina Standish is Deputy Director of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Otago. She has been a community peacebuilder since 2003. She is a proponent of personal peacebuilding and is a specialist in violence transformation.

The roots of Christian pacifism and peace traditions in New Zealand

Pacifism has always been a minority position within the New Zealand churches, as it has been within New Zealand society more generally. Nevertheless, a long lineage of Christian commitment to peacemaking in the nation dates back to the nineteenth century. This paper examines the pacifist ethic within early missionary Christianity, considering the extent of its influence and its contribution towards the development of a Christian peace tradition in New Zealand.

Geoff Troughton is Senior Lecturer in Religious Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, where his teaching includes courses on Christianity, religion and politics, and secularisation. His current research focuses on Christian peace activism in New Zealand and contemporary religious change. Geoff’s most recent publication, Saints and Stirrers (2017), examines Christianity and peace activism in New Zealand history; a second edited volume on this theme, Pursuing Peace sin Godzone, will be published in 2018. Other major publications include New Zealand Jesus (2011), and two co-edited volumes on New Zealand religious history – The Spirit of the Past (2011), and Sacred Histories in Secular New Zealand (2016).

Can there be an Islamic Pacifism?

As we reflect on the Quran and the life of Muhammad, we encounter elements of Pacifism as well as elements associated with Just War theory. My aim will be to explore and critically discuss both elements, as well as explore the work of Muslim intellectuals on the issue of war and peace within the tradition of Islam. I also plan to discuss the views of extremist groups, such as al-Qaeda, who regard violence as a legitimate tool for achieving their goals.

Dr Zain Ali is currently the Head of the Islamic Studies Research Unit at the University of Auckland. He teaches an introductory paper on Islam, and specialises in Islamic Philosophy and Philosophy of Religion. His publications include a book, Faith, Philosophy and the Reflective Muslim (2013), an academic paper, Concepts of God in Islam (2016), and a number of opinion pieces in the New Zealand Herald.

The Pursuit of Justice: Through War or Peace?

Just war theory, originally proposed by Augustine to enable a Roman Christian Emperor to pursue war against his enemies, rather than adhere to the doctrine of pacifism as originally espoused by the Christian church, has evolved over time to act as the moral justification for all sorts of very unjust wars, many occurring in our present era. 

On the other hand, the mere absence of war, does not mean that justice exists.  The concept of just peace is part of the debate within the discipline of peace and conflict studies, that considers what might be necessary both to keep a society peaceful and to ensure that conflicted societies return to peace.

In this address, I will firstly consider what is justice, secondly look at the evolution of the doctrine or ethical theory of Just War, and thirdly discuss the debate about Just Peace, and how justice interacts with other values such as forgiveness, truth, in order to bring about conflict transformation, reconciliation and positive peace.

Dr Heather Devere is the Director of Practice in the Postgraduate National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Dr. Devere is responsible for the practicum programme, and teaching on peace traditions of Aotearoa and conflict resolution practice. She has supervised a number of PhD theses on topics that include peacekeeping, transitional justice, anti-racism, indigenous resistance, and peace education.  Dr. Devere edits the journal AMITY: The Journal of Friendship Studies with Dr. Graham Smith from Leeds University, and co-edited Indigenous Rights and Peacebuilding with Kelli Te Maiharoa and John Synott.  She has also published widely on issues including, women and politics, women in the media, and refugee resettlement.

War, Anzac Day and the Gospels

Reflections arising from an Anzac Day Service:

  • The utter brutality and inhumanity of war
  • Remembering those who lost their lives in war and all those affected by it, particularly those who served in World Wars I and II.
  • Remembering also the New Zealand Pacifists who were reviled and shamefully treated for the courage of their convictions
  • An elucidation of the gospel message central to the pacifist stand
  • Whether an armed military response can ever be justified as a response to attack
  • The dangers of nationalism

Looking forward:

  • The challenges for tomorrow’s world
  • International leadership issues
  • An individual response

Graeme has law degrees from Auckland and Cambridge Universities.  He became a partner in 1965 in the legal firm of Simpson Coates and Clapshaw, now Simpson Grierson.  In 1984 he was appointed a full-time Commissioner of the Human Rights Commission for a five year term.  In 1989 he was appointed a District Court Judge with a Family Court warrant. He retired as a Judge at the end of 2005.  Since retirement he has been a strong advocate for children at significant risk, seeking a positive start in life for all children. His paper today is based on his Anzac Day address this year to his old school, Kings’ College.